Concrete is a mixture of cementious material, aggregate, and water. Aggregate is commonly considered inert filler, which accounts for 60 to 80 percent of the volume and 70 to 85 percent of the weight of concrete. Although aggregate is considered inert filler, it is a necessary component that defines the concrete’s thermal and elastic properties and dimensional stability. Aggregate is classified as two different types, coarse and fine. Coarse aggregate is usually greater than 4.75 mm (retained on a No. 4 sieve), while fine aggregate is less than 4.75 mm (passing the No. 4 sieve). The compressive aggregate strength is an important factor in the selection of aggregate. When determining the strength of normal concrete, most concrete aggregates are several times stronger than the other components in concrete and therefore not a factor in the strength of normal strength concrete. Lightweight aggregate concrete may be more influenced by the compressive strength of the aggregates.
Other physical and mineralogical properties of aggregate must be known before mixing concrete to obtain a desirable mixture. These properties include shape and texture, size gradation, moisture content, specific gravity, reactivity, soundness and bulk unit weight. These properties along with the water/cementitious material ratio determine the strength, workability, and durability of concrete.
The shape and texture of aggregate affects the properties of fresh concrete more than hardened concrete. Concrete is more workable when smooth and rounded aggregate is used instead of rough angular or elongated aggregate. Most natural sands and gravel from riverbeds or seashores are smooth and rounded and are excellent aggregates. Crushed stone produces much more angular and elongated aggregates, which have a higher surface-to-volume ratio, better bond characteristics but require more cement paste to produce a workable mixture.
The surface texture of aggregate can be either smooth or rough. A smooth surface can improve workability, yet a rougher surface generates a stronger bond between the paste and the aggregate creating a higher strength.
The grading or size distribution of aggregate is an important characteristic because it determines the paste requirement for workable concrete. This paste requirement is the factor controlling the cost, since cement is the most expensive component. It is therefore desirable to minimize the amount of paste consistent with the production of concrete that can be handled, compacted, and finished while providing the necessary strength and durability. The required amount of cement paste is dependent upon the amount of void space that must be filled and the total surface area that must be covered. When the particles are of uniform size the spacing is the greatest, but when a range of sizes is used the void spaces are filled and the paste requirement is lowered. The more these voids are filled, the less workable the concrete becomes, therefore, a compromise between workability and economy is necessary.
The moisture content of an aggregate is an important factor when developing the proper water/cementitious material ratio. All aggregates contain some moisture based on the porosity of the particles and the moisture condition of the storage area. The moisture content can range from less than one percent in gravel to up to 40 percent in very porous sandstone and expanded shale. Aggregate can be found in four different moisture states that include oven-dry (OD), air-dry (AD), saturated-surface dry (SSD) and wet. Of these four states, only OD and SSD correspond to a specific moisture state and can be used as reference states for calculating moisture content. In order to calculate the quantity of water that aggregate will either add or subtract to the paste, the following three quantities must be calculated: absorption capacity, effective absorption, and surface moisture.
Most stockpiled coarse aggregate is in the AD state with an absorption of less than one percent, but most fine aggregate is often in the wet state with surface moisture up to five percent. This surface moisture on the fine aggregate creates a thick film over the surface of the particles pushing them apart and increasing the apparent volume. This is commonly known as bulking and can cause significant errors in proportioning volume.
The density of the aggregates is required in mixture proportioning to establish weight-volume relationships. Specific gravity is easily calculated by determining the densities by the displacement of water. All aggregates contain some porosity, and the specific gravity value depends on whether these pores are included in the measurement. There are two terms that are used to distinguish this measurement; absolute specific gravity and bulk specific gravity. Absolute specific gravity (ASG) refers to the solid material excluding the pores, and bulk specific gravity (BSG), sometimes called apparent specific gravity, includes the volume of the pores. For the purpose of mixture proportioning, it is important to know the space occupied by the aggregate particles, including the pores within the particles. The BSG of an aggregate is not directly related to its performance in concrete, although, the specification of BSG is often done to meet minimum density requirements.
For mixture proportioning, the bulk unit weight (a.k.a. bulk density) is required. The bulk density measures the volume that the graded aggregate will occupy in concrete, including the solid aggregate particles and the voids between them. Since the weight of the aggregate is dependent on the moisture content of the aggregate, a constant moisture content is required. This is achieved by using OD aggregate. Additionally, the bulk density is required for the volume method of mixture proportioning.
The most common classification of aggregates on the basis of bulk specific gravity is lightweight, normal-weight, and heavyweight aggregates. In normal concrete the aggregate weighs 1,520 – 1,680 kg/m3, but occasionally designs require either lightweight or heavyweight concrete. Lightweight concrete contains aggregate that is natural or synthetic which weighs less than 1,100 kg/m3and heavyweight concrete contains aggregates that are natural or synthetic which weigh more than 2080 kg/m3.
Although aggregates are most commonly known to be inert filler in concrete,
the different properties of aggregate have a large impact on the strength,
durability, workability, and economy of concrete. These different properties
of aggregate allow designers and contractors the most flexibility to meet
their design and construction requirements.