One-Minute Essays
Colonial American Mill Bibliography
For those needing references to more information on mills, milling, and the present state of mills in North America, we offer the following information.
Books/Dissertations on Mills (limited to Pa. and region)
  • Brooke Hunter, “Rage for Grain: Flour Milling in the Mid-Atlantic” (U. of Delaware Ph.D. thesis, 2001)
  • G. Terry Sharer, “Flour Milling and the Growth of Baltimore” (U. of Maryland Ph.D,. thesis, 1975)
  • Jane Levis Carter – The Paper Makers: Early Pennsylvanians and Their Water Mills
  • Jean Seder – Voices of Kensington: Vanishing Mills, Vanishing Neighborhoods
  • Carter Litchfield and others – The Bethlehem Oil Mill, 1745-1934: German Technology in Early Bethlehem
  • Carol Hoffecker, Brandywine Village: The Story of a Milling Community (Wilmington, 1974).
  • Cynthia Shelton, The Mills of Manayunk: Industrialization and Social Conflict in the Philadelphia Region, 1737-1837 (Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1986).
  • Steven Hahn and Jonathan Prude, eds., The Countryside in the Age of Capitalist Transformation: Essays in the Social History of Rural America (Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1985).
  • Grenville and Dorothy Bathe, Oliver Evans: A Chronicle of Early American Engineering (Philadelphia, 1935).
  • Eugene S. Ferguson, Oliver Evans: Inventive Genius of the American Industrial Revolution (Greenville, Del., 1980)
  • Horace J. Sheeley, Windmills and Millers in the Eighteenth Century (Williamsburg, 1975)
  • Peter Cobbett Welsh, The Brandywine Mills , 1742-1815 (1956)
Articles on Mills
  • Robert P. Stevenson, “Seven Early Woolen Mills of Western Pennsylvania,” Pennsylvania Folklife, 1990-91 (40): 81-85.
  • Arthur C. Lord, “Donegal Mills: A Case Study in Historical Geography,” Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society, 1977 (81): 117-137.
  • Brooke Hunter,  “Creative Destruction:  The Forgotten Legacy  of the Hessian Fly,” in Cathy Matson (ed.), The  Economy of Early America: Recent Directions (Penn State Univ. Press, 2005)
  • Rufus M. Fetter, “The Smith-Wallis Gristmill,” Now and Then, 1974 (12): 548-552.
  • Ralph L. Hazeltine, “Some Notes on the Use of Water Power Along Toby’s Creek,” Proceedings and Collections of the Wyoming Historical and Genealogical Society, 1970 (23): 73-122.
  • Brooke Hunter, “The Prospect of Independent Americans: The Grain Trade and Economic Development During the 1780s,” Explorations in Early American Culture, 2001 (5), 260-287.
  • Peter Welsh, “The Brandywine Mills: A Chronicle of an Industry, 1762-1816,” Delaware History, 1956 (7), 17-36.
  • Peter Welsh, “Merchants, Millers, and Ocean Ships: The Components of an Early American Industrial Town,” Delaware History, 1957 (7), 319-336.
General Works
  • Mary Schweitzer, “The Economy of Philadelphia and its Hinterland” in Catherine Hutchins, ed. Shaping a National Culture: The Philadelphia Experience (Winterthur, 1994)
  • Paul G. E. Clemens, The Atlantic Economy and Maryland’s Eastern Shore (Cornell Univ. Press, 1980)
  • John F. Walzer, “Colonial Philadelphia and its Backcountry,” Winterthur Portfolio 7 (1972): 161-173.
  • David Dauer, “Colonial Philadelphia’s Interregional Transportation System,” Working Papers of the Eleutherian Mills-Hagley (Greenville, 1978), 1-16.
  • Berhanrd L. Herman, Architecture and Rural Life in Central Delaware, 1700-1900 (Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1987).
  • Philip Scranton, Proprietary Capitalism: The Textile Manufacture at Philadelphia, 1810-1850 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1984).
  • Paul Paskoff, Industrial Evolution: Organization, Structure, and Growth of the Pennsyvlania Iron Industry, 1750-1860 (John Hopkins Univ. Press, 1983)
  • Stephanie Grauman Wolf. As Various as their Land; The Everyday Life of Eighteenth Century Americans (Harper and Row, 1993)
  • Stephanie Grauman Wolf, Urban Village: Population, Community, and Family Structure in Germantown, 1683-1800 (Princeton Univ. Press, 1976).
  • James Lemon, The Best Poor Man’s Country: A Geographical Study of early Southeastern Pennsylvania (Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1972) – Systematic analysis of mills and their locations.
  • Joseph Scott, Geographical Description of Pennsylvania (1806): lists mills by county – over 1900 by 1806
  • Stella Sutherland, Population Distribution in Colonial America (1936, rpt. 1966): chapter on Pennsylvania lists mills by county.
  • Lucy Simler, “The Township: The Community of the Rural Pennsylvania American,” Pennsyvlania Magazine of History and Biography, 106 (1982), 41-48.
  • Mary Schweitzer, Custom and Contract: Household Government and the Economy in Colonial Pennsylvania (Columbia Univ. Press, 1987).
  • Brooke Hunter, “Creative Destruction: The Forgotten Legacy of the Hessian Fly,” in Cathy Matson, ed. The Economy of Early America: Recent Directions (Penn State Press Univ. Press, 2005) – also see her dissertation.
  • Peter Tracy Dondlinger,The Book of Wheat (Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1973)
  • R. O. Bausman and J. A. Munroe, “James Tilton’s Notes on the Agriculture of Delaware,” Agricultural History, 20 (1946), around p. 180.
  • Paul W. Schopp and Carter Litchfield, “The Burlington Windmill: A Unusual Colonial Manufactory,” New Jersey History, 114 (1990), 2-17.
  • Diane Lindstrom, Economic Development in the Philadelphia Region, 1810-1850 (1978, Columbia Univ. Press)
  • Henry Glassie, “Eighteenth Century Folk Cultural Process in Delaware Valley Folk Building,” Winterthur Portfolio, 7 (1972): 29-57.
  • Stevenson W. Fletcher, Pennsylvania Agriculture and Country Life, 1640-1840 (PHMC, 1950).
  • Philip E. Pendleton, Oley Valley Heritage: The Colonial Years (Pa German Society, 1994). Pendleton also has a manuscript on Berks County mills, available at Berks County Historical Society.
  • Gabrielle Lanier, “A Region of Regions: Local and Regional Culture in the Delaware Valley, 1780-1830" (Univ. of Delaware, Ph.D. thesis, 1997).
  • Dianne Wegner, “Creating Networks: The Country Storekeeper and the MidAtlantic Economy,” (Univ. of Delaware, PhD Thesis, 2001).
  • David J. Jeremy, “The British Textile Technology Transmission to the United States, The Philadelphia Region Experience,” Business History Review 44 (1973):
  • Robert D. Arbuckle, Pennsylvania Speculator and Patriot: The Entrepreneurial John Hicholson, 1757-1800 (Penn State Press, 1975).
  • Thomas Cochrane, ed., The New American State Papers, Manufacturers (Wilmington, 1972)
  • Arthur Cole, ed. Industrial and Commercial Correspondence of Alexander Hamilton (Chicago, 1928) – see also Hamilton's Papers (26 vols.)
  • Mildred Goshow, ed. Mills and Mill Owners of Manayunk in the 19th Century, typescript 1970, Roxborough Branch, Free Library of Philadelphia.
  • Anthony F.C. Wallace, Rockdale (New York, 1978)
  • Sylvester K. Stevens, Pennsylvania: Titan of Industry, vol. 1 (New York, 1948).
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