On this page you will find articles that take an in-depth look at various themes in milling and iron manufacture. They may also serve as the framework for a lesson or a series of lessons.
- Mills and Machinery from Medieval to Colonial Times, Walton
A number of images and documents from the transitional period from the Middle Ages to the American colonial experience illustrate the mechanical toolkit with which the settlers had to work.
- Geography, Landscape, and Mills
Lesson on mills and why they appeared where they did. The goal of the lesson is to have students explore their local surroundings for evidence of the once-common milling industry in every city, town, or even rural village.
- Millstone Prices in 1848/Prices of Millstones from Mr. Tyack,
University of Virginia Archives, 1848
Chart of prices, sizes and weights of millstones in 1848.
- Laws Regarding Watermills,
Text of and commentary on three laws from colonial America relating to the encouragement of the construction of waterwheels.
On the Best Angles for the Sails of a Windmill,
Josh Garnett, 1809
1809 article on the best angles for the sails of a windmill.
At Ephrata Cloister:
- The Mills at Ephrata, Showalter
Article on mills and the products of mills, which were central to the prosperity and survival of colonial communities such as that at Ephrata, Pennsylvania.
- Printing at Ephrata,
Article on the Old World printing technology that was carried to Ephrata, Pennsylvania.
At Historic Bethlehem:
- Colonial America's Pre-Industrial Age of Wood and Water,
Article on the colonial economy and its technology.
- Perfection in the Mechanical Arts: The Development of Moravian Industrial Technology in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1741-1814,
Stephen Cutliffe & Karen Huetter/Historic Bethlehem
Article on Bethlehem's contribution to American technological development because of its early concentration of industrial technology.
- America: The Land of Opportunity -- Manufacturing in Colonial Pennsylvania: Bethlehem/Sample Teacher Resources/Lesson -- Upper Elementary-Middle School,
Lesson plan on manufacturing at the colonial community in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
- Oil Mill Industries at Bethlehem/Technology of the Oil Mill Industries,
Story of the oil mills at Bethlehem's Moravian community.
- The Grist Milling Process,
Article on the milling of flour in Pennsylvania. Explanation of how a grist mill works.
- The Bakery at the Moravian Community, Bethlehem, PA,
Story of the bakery at Bethlehem's Moravian community.
- The Significance of the Bethlehem Waterworks,
Article on the Bethlehem waterworks, the first pumped municipal water system in the colonies.
- Stronger than One Hundred Men: the Vertical Waterwheel,
Article on the critical importance of the vertical waterwheel to Western technology, specifically the community at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
- Fast Food in Medieval Europe,
Article on the portable and inexpensive foods in medieval Europe.
- Fast Food in Colonial America,
Article on the portable and inexpensive foods of colonial America.
- Getting Your Daily Bread-Breads in Medieval Society,
Teacher's Content Base Outline, Applying State Standards, and Activities, which can be used as a basis to generate specific lessons.
Lesson plans for the following three in-depth articles on bread.
- All Bread Is Not Created Equal,
Article on the assize laws, regulating the production of bread and beer.
- English Bread Assizes from Reigns of Henry II to Edward II,
Original medieval assize documents, regulating the production of bread.
- The Flower of Wheat: Bread in the Middle Ages and Colonial Era,
Article about bread, its composition, changes, importance, and laws.
At Historic Bethlehem:
- The Working World of the Smiths,
Article on the apprenticeship and duties on a smith in colonial America, specifically Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
- The Blacksmith,
Article on the products of the blacksmiths at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
- The Locksmith,
Article on the duties of a colonial locksmith, particularly in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
- The Tools and Trade Techniques of the Blacksmith,
Henry J. Kauffman/Historic Bethlehem
Article on the tools and techniques of the blacksmith.
- The Blacksmiths of Early Bethlehem,
Charles A. LeCount/Historic Bethlehem
Article on the smith in Bethlehem's economy, how to become and work as a smith, what the smith produced, and names of smiths in colonial Bethlehem.
- The Reconstructed 1750/1761 Smithy at Historic Bethlehem,
Article describing the smithy at Historic Bethlehem.