Note: While great efforts have been taken to provide accurate and complete information on the pages of CPEP, please be aware that the information contained herewith is considered a work‐in progress for this thesis project. Modifications and changes related to the original building designs and construction methodologies for this senior thesis project are solely the interpretation of Gea Johnson. Changes and discrepancies in no way imply that the original design contained errors or was flawed. Differing assumptions, code references, requirements, and methodologies have been incorporated into this thesis project; therefore, investigation results may vary from the original design.

This page was last Updated on 01/17/2012 by Gea Johnson and is hosted by the AE Department © 2012



















Building Statistics



Building Name:

1000 Connecticut Avenue


1701 K Street, NW at Connecticut Avenue, Washington D.C.

Building Occupant:

Space is available for lease

Occupancy Types:

The building is comprised of mixed occupancies:






Gynasiums (Fitness Center)






Low Hazard

Parking Garages


555,000 SF (370,000 SF above grade and 185,000 SF below grade


130 Feet

Number of Stories:

12 stories above grade
4 stories below grade

Construction Dates:

September 2009-February 2012

Construction Cost:

$60 million

Delivery Method:




General Contractor:

Clark Construction Group

Architect-of- Record:

WDG Architecture

Design Architect:

Pei Cobb Freed and Partners


Girard Engineering


SK&A Structural Engineers


VIKA, Inc.


MJ Tyler and Associates



The 1000 Connecticut Avenue office/retail Building is located in the heart of the Central Business District at the intersection of K Street and Connecticut Avenue in Washington DC, as can be seen in fig 1.

(image courtesy of Pei Cobb Freed Architects)

Figure 1 Building Site



To create a new Washington landmark, the building is designed to compliment surrounding institutions by blending both tradtional and modern materials.

The facade consists of a glass, stainless steel and stone panel curtain wall system. The lobby and retail space are located on the 1st level, which

has a 12’-6 1/2” floor-to-floor story height. A canopy facing K Street brings attention to the main lobby entrance, as can be seen in fig 2.


Figure 2 Main Lobby Entrance facing K Street














Beyond the main entrance is a two story intricate lobby space with carrera marble and Chelmsford granite flooring, aluminum spline panels integrated with glass fiber reinforced gypsum (GFRG) ceiling tiles and European white oak wood screens, as can be seen in figures 3 and 4.

Figure 3 perspective of lobby facing east





















Figure 4 Perspective of lobby facing west












The retail space is broken down into several retail stores facing K Street and Connecticut Avenue. These retail stores are housed behind storefront glass to

enable display of merchandise to potential customers. The 2nd-12th levels

have 10’-7 ½” floor-to-floor story heights. Housed on the typical levels (3rd-

12th) is the office space. A combination of tall story heights and a continuous

floor to ceiling glass façade enables natural daylight to enter the building space

as well as provides scenery to the Washington monuments, Farragut Park , and the White House, as can be seen in figure 5.

as can be seefigure 5.

Figure 5 Perspective of typical office with floor-to-celing windows that supply views to the surrounding areas


In addition, located on the penthouse level is a roof-top terrace with a green roof and a mechanical penthouse, as can be seen in figure 6.

Figure 6 Perspective of green roof on the roof-top terrace and mechnical penthouse



















Housed on the basement levels (B1-B4) are underground parking and a fitness center. A total of 253 parking spaces are provided; level B1 has 19 parking spaces; level B2 has 74 parking spaces; level B3 has 78 parking spaces; level B4 has 82 parking spaces. In addition, the fitness center is located on level B1.



International Building Code - 2000

National Electric Code - 1996

International Energy Conservation Code - 2000

International Fire Prevention Code - 2000

International Fuel Gas Code - 2000

International Mechanical Code – 2000
            ASHRAE 90.1 – 2004
            ASHRAE 62.1 – 2004

International Plumbing Code - 2000

DCMR 12 Building Code Regulations (2003)

DCMR Title 11 – Zoning Regulations










Applicable Codes:

Zoning Ordinances of District of Columbia (DCMR-11) with P.U.D. Development Standards
Site Zone: C-4
Permitted building height: 130 feet

Floor Area Ratio:

Total floor area ratio (FAR) per PUD Order No. 06-13 = 11.13 FAR
Total FAR permitted for Mechanical Penthouse = 0.37 FAR


This building does not have any historical requirements.



























The exterior building façade consists of a curtain wall system. The curtain wall is comprised of stainless steel clad aluminum, glass windows, and stone curtain panel wall units, as cen be seen in figure 7. Exterior and interior aluminum and glass storefront windows and doors are on the ground level. Aluminum soffit panels face the west alley.


Figure 7 Perspective of curtain wall system
























The curtain wall system contains several glass types, which include clear, insulated, and laminated glass for the upper levels (2-11) and skylights facing K Street and Connecticut Avenue. The alley ribbon glass windows on levels 1-12 are clear and laminated. The entrance canopy glass is clear, bent, laminated, and has a ceramic frit pattern. In addition, the entrance lobby has low iron, laminated glass with flat satin polished on the vertical edges.


The building’s roofing consists of a green roof system covered with vegetation planted over a waterproofing membrane with a combination of intensive and extensive plants. Additional roofing layers include extruded polystyrene insulation, root barrier, drainage board, and an irrigation system.


1000 Connecticut Avenue Building is designed to achieve LEED gold certification upon completion. The facility’s sustainability features include a green roof system, which is used to decrease the urban heat island effect, absorb rain water, provide insulation and create a wildlife habitat. Other notable features include low water flow rate urinals, sinks, and showers, natural daylighting and increased ventilation, and construction waste management.




Before construction began on 1000 Connecticut Avenue Office Building, two existing buildings that occupied the site were demolished in May 2008. Excavation began in September 2009 and was completed by July 2010. In November 2010, the concrete reached the grade level and the concrete was topped out by May 2011. Construction on the curtain wall began March 2011 and completed by July 2011. The site challenges associated with the project are that the project is a high profile site because it is located 4 blocks from the White House and is located at the intersection of two major streets; adjacent buildings to the West and North, which both have space below grade, must be monitored; and, there is limited access to the job site. The challenging project components include a complicated support of the excavation system; a complex glass and glazing system; intricate lobby; and, green roof system.


Foundation System:


1000 Connecticut Avenue, NW Office Building is supported by a shallow foundation consisting of column footings and strap beams. The typical column footing sizes are 4'-0" x 4'-0", 5'-0" x 5'-0", and 4'-0" x 8'-0".


The slab on grade is 5" thick, 5000 psi concrete with 6x6-W2.9xW2.9 wire welded fabric on a minimum 15 mil Polyethylene sheet over 6" washed crushed stone. The foundation walls consists of concrete masonry units vertically reinforced with #5 bars at 16" on center and horizontally reinforced with #4 bars at 12" on center and are subjected to a lateral load (earth pressure) of 45 PSF per foot of wall depth.


Framing and Floor System:


The framing system is composed of reinforced concrete columns with an average column-to-column spacing of 30'x30'. The columns have a specified concrete strength of f'c=8000 psi for columns on levels B4 to level 3, f'c=6000 psi for columns on levels 4-7, and f'c=5000 psi for columns on levels 8-mechanical penthouse. The columns are framed at the concrete floor and the columns vary in size. The most common column sizes are 24"x24", 16"x48", and 24"x30". The column capitals are 6" thick, measured from the bottom of the drop panel, extending 6" all around the face of the column.


The typical floor system is comprised of an 8" thick two-way flat slab with drop panels reinforced with #5 bottom bars spaced 12" on center in both the column and middle strips.


Lateral System:

The lateral system is comprised of a reinforced concrete moment frame. The columns and slab are poured monolithically, thus creating a rigid connection between the elements. The curtain wall is attached to the concrete slab, which puts the slab in bending. The curtain wall transfers the lateral load to the slab. The slab then transfers the lateral load to the columns and in turn the columns transfer the load to the foundation. Transfer girders on the lower level are used to transfer the loads from the columns that do not align with the basement columns in order to transfer the load to the foundation.


The mechanical system in 1000 Connecticut Avenue consists of a direct digital automatic temperature control system with a separate cooling loop on each floor. A minimum one VAV per 450 SF is used for perimeter zones and one VAV per 1000 SF is used for interior zones.

The VAV air handling units are located in the mechanical rooms on levels B1 east and 2-12 (both east and west). The water cooled A/C units serve the main lobby, penthouse lobby, fitness room, building services, and mail room. the water cooled A/C units provide 2-way normally closed water regulating valve and condensate pan with electronic leak detection. The split system heat pump units serve 3 spaces in the building and provides a 24-hour programmable thermostat with automatic changeover and provide units with fresh air knock-outs. Three cooling towers are located on the penthouse level and provide air to the building spaces. Commercial condensor water is used for the commercial system and chilled water is used for the office building system. Air is distributed to the spaces through 2'x2' plaque face ceiling diffusers.


1000 Connecticut Avenue contains a 480/277 high voltage and 208/120 low voltage, 3-phase, 4 wire electrical system to power the entire building. Electrical power is provided to each level through electrical rooms located on each floor. A 500 KW, 480/277 volt, 3-phase, 4-wire diesel emergency generator located on the penthouse level provides emergency power to the building. To conserve energy, occupancy sensors are used to control both electrical and mechanical usage. to control mechanical usage, ceiling mounted occupancy sensors with mechanical supply air diffusers are used. To control electrical usage, wall mounted automatic control switches capable of being manually overridden are used. Interior lighting in 1000 Connecticut Avenue includes fluorescent, metal halide, and LED lighting.


1000 Connecticut Avenue has six high speed elevators located in the core of the building. Of the six high speed elevators, one elevator travels from levels levels B1 to the penthouse; one elevator travel from levels B1 to 12; one elevator travel from levels 1 to the penthouse; three elevators travel from levels 1 to 12. Two additional elevators travel from levels B4 to 1. Lastly, one freight elevator travel from levels B1 to the penthouse.